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Okul Öncesi Rehberlik / Kapotth, Eusebio, Ilja and Trano Bahrain
« Son İleti Gönderen: TomDogs Bugün, 03:40:59 ÖS »
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« Son İleti Gönderen: BRCUDRN Eylül 18, 2018, 01:13:09 ÖS »


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Üniversite Giriş Sınavı / Campa, Jens, Surus and Dawson Mexico
« Son İleti Gönderen: Zapotekmom Eylül 18, 2018, 03:30:15 ÖÖ »
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Üniversite Giriş Sınavı / Campa, Moff, Navaras and Mirzo Viet nam
« Son İleti Gönderen: AsaruMart Eylül 17, 2018, 10:57:40 ÖS »
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PDR Makale Yazılar / Madde Bağımlılığı (Makale) - Uzman Psikolog Rıfat TUĞSAL
« Son İleti Gönderen: Kirazdal Mart 20, 2018, 09:15:15 ÖS »

Madde bağımlılığı en kaba tabirle, madde olmadığı zamanlarda bireysel ya da sosyal bir insan olarak hayatı sürdürememek, sürdürmekten keyif alamama durumudur ve belirli aralıklarla madde kullanmaya ihtiyaç duyma durumudur.

Madde bağımlılarının ortak ve çoğu zaman kurduğu cümlelerden biri “istediğim zaman bırakabilirim” ya da “ben Ramazanda hiç içki içmiyorum ki, alkolik olsam içerdim.” İnsan belli bir dönem bir davranışını durdurabilir. Bir süre davranışı durdurabilyor olmak kişinin bağımlılığından kurtulmuş olduğunu göstermemektedir. İnsanlar probleminin olmadığına kendilerini inandırmak isterler, istedikleri zaman bunu değiştireceklerini söylerler ama aslında hayatları bu problemle devam ediyordur. Öncelikle bu inkarla başa çıkamazsak tedavi olamayız.

Yüzleşme, farkındalık ve bağımlılıkla ilgili iç görü geliştirme bağımlılıktan kurtulmanın temelini oluşturmaktadır. İç görü bireyin kendisi ile ilgili meseleyi bilmesi ve kabul etmesidir. “Sigarayı bırakmam lazım, alkol kullanmayı durdurmam lazım, kendime çeki düzen vermem lazım” gibi gibi… Fakat meseleyi bir aklen farketmek vardır, bir de duygusal olarak farketmek vardır. Aklen, bazı insanlar durumunun farkındalığına sahiptirler. Fakat bu farkındalık duygusal anlamda farkedildiği zaman bağımlılık tedavisinin kapısı kendisine açılır.

Kişinin durumunu kendi sorununu idrak ettikten sonra hayatını buna göre düzenlemesi gerekir. Bütün hayat alışkanlıklarını değiştirmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çok büyük destek, çaba ve konsantrasyon gerektiren bir durumdur ve kolay değildir. Eğlenme biçimi, dinlenme biçimini, sosyalleşme biçimini ve hatta rahatlama biçimini bile değiştirmesi gerekebilir. Uzun süre kendisine maddeyi çağrıştıracak, geçmişte madde kullandığı ortamdan uzak kalması gerekebilir. Buna küçük bir örnek verecek olursak, Trans müzik dinlerken madde kullanmaktan keyif alan bir kişinin trans müzikten bir süre uzak kalması gerekebilir ya da madde kullanırken sevgilisinin parfüm kokusundan keyif alan bir kişinin o parfüm kokusundan uzak durması gerekebilir. Bu nedenle maddeyi bırakma sürecinde aile ve yakın çevrenin desteği büyük ölçüde önem taşır.

Madde kullanan değil, bırakan kişilerin belirli dönemlerde bir araya gelerek konu üzerinde biri birlerine destek olmaları en etkin ve bilimsel olarak etkinliği kanıtlamış yöntemlerden bir tanesidir. Aynı sorunu yaşayan kişilerin bir araya gelerek paylaşımda bulunmaları ciddi anlamda motivasyonu artırmaktadır.

Madde kullanımının bırakılması kesinlikle bir uzman psikolog, psikiyatrist, psikoterapist gibi profesyonellerle birlikte yapılması gerekir. Maddenin aniden kesilmesi durumunda beyin krize girebilir, otonom sinir sistemi, kalp, tansiyon, bütün yaşamsal dengeler bozulabilir. Risklidir ve kötü sonuçlar doğurabilir.

Günümüzde madde kullanımını bırakırken gerçek anlamda destek olabilecek etkinliği yüzde yüz kanıtlanmış rahatlatıcı ilaçlar bir Psikiyatrist tarafınca düzenlenebilir (Bu ilaçlar kendi başına asla kullanılmaması gereken ilaçlardır.) Madde tedavisinin temelini “nüks önleme” tedavisi oluşturur. Bu ilaçlar ve psikoterapi nüks’ü azaltabilmektedir. Kişiye maddeyi çağrıştıracak her şeyden uzak durması konusunda “profesyonel motivasyon” lazımdır. Yani; pek çok insanda var olan motivasyon bir profesyonelle birlikte işe yarar, amaca yönelik ve nitelikli hale gelmesi sağlanmalıdır. Madde bırakıldıktan sonra kaygı ve depresyon da çoğu zaman kişiye eşlik etmektedir ve bunun da mutlaka aktif olarak tedavi edilmesi /psikoterapi alınması gerekmektedir.

Madde bağımlılığından kurtulma sürecinin tümünde psikoterapi ve grup terapileri en etkili yöntemlerdendir.

Madde bağımlısı ömür boyu o maddeye karşı diğer insanlardan daha duyarlı olsa da, ya da kişi maddeyi hiç bırakamayacağı hissine kapılsada çok sayıda insan “bağımlılık tedavisi”nden sonra çok daha keyifli, düzelmiş ve sağlıklı bir hayata başlamıştır.

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Uzman Psikolog Rıfat TUĞSAL
Psikoloji Genel / Evden Kaçmak Eğilimi
« Son İleti Gönderen: dileks34 Aralık 23, 2017, 01:33:51 ÖÖ »
Evden Kaçmak Eğilimi
Son yıllarda evden kaçan çocukların sayısı artıyor. Niye giderler, ne fakatç güderler bilirseniz engellemeniz de mümkün olabilir diye düşündüm. Konuyla ilgili bir şeyler yazayım dedim.

Öncelikle bilmeliyiz ki; evden kaçma duygusu çoğu zaman buluğluk döneminde görülür. Evden kaçan çocuk, zihninde geliştirdiği bir maceraya ulaşmak için evden kaçma eğilimi gösterir. Her macera, doğası gereği belirsizliklerle doludur. Dolayısıyla evden kaçan çocuk, dışarıda başına ne geleceğini, hangi süreçlerden geçeceğini uzun uzadıya hesaplayamaz. Bu konuda daha detaylı bilgi almak için https://www.evdenkacmak.com sitesini inceleyin. Her hapse düşenin karşısına bir “Dayı” çıkmayacağına nazaran, bulutları çatı yapan ergenin kimlerle karşılaşacağı, sokaklara kaçtığında başına gelecek her şey tamamen tesadüflerle doludur.

İkinci olarak bilmemiz gereken mesele; evini terk eden her çocuk, daima günlük yaşamında hayal kırıklığına uğramış yaralı bir varlıktır. Anlayışsız, sevgisini göstermeyen, aşırı cezalar veren anne/babasının eseridir. Yaşadığı gerçek dünya çekilmez hale gelen çocuk, hayalini kurduğu rüya alemlerine dalarak tehlikelere yelken açmaktadır. Böylece kendisini nefes alabileceği ortamlara taşıdığını zanneder. Oysa yanıldığını anlaması uzun süre almaz. Dönebilirse evine gelir, dönemezse sokakların olur.

Bizler yetişkinler için kara senaryo olan sokak yaşamı, ergenlerin dünyalarında coşku dolu serüven gibi hissediliyor ve bu durum evden kaçmalarını kolaylaştırıyor. Öyleyse onların macera dolu sandıkları rüya alemlerinden ayırmak; gerçek dünyalarını yaşanılır hale getirmek için çaba harcamalıyız. Sevgimizi, ilgimizi esirgememeliyiz. Sevilmediğini, anne/babası tarafından istenmediğini, kendisinden yaka silkindiğini düşündürtmemeliyiz. Aile içindeki sevgide, dostlar arasındaki dostlukta sadakatsizliğe uğradığını düşünen evlatlarımızın yanında olmalıyız.

Gerçek dünyasının kendisine sırt çevirdiğini düşünen gençler, imgesel dünyalar oluşturarak, o hayale kavuşmak amacıyla evden kaçabilirler. Gerçek dünyalarını huzurlu/yaşanılır kılmaya çalışmalıyız.

Söze gelince evden kaçıyorlar diye kızıyoruz ama kaçırtana değil; hep kaçana bozuluyoruz. Gidenle gitmeyenin gerekçelerini iyi anladığımızda, gidenlerin sayısını azaltacağımızdan şüphemiz olmasın.

Unutmayalım! Evden kaçan çocuk var ise, yuvasından kaçırtan anne/babası kesinlikle vardır!
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